Class ServiceManager

  • @GwtIncompatible
    public final class ServiceManager
    extends Object
    A manager for monitoring and controlling a set of services. This class provides methods for starting, stopping and inspecting a collection of services. Additionally, users can monitor state transitions with the listener mechanism.

    While it is recommended that service lifecycles be managed via this class, state transitions initiated via other mechanisms do not impact the correctness of its methods. For example, if the services are started by some mechanism besides startAsync(), the listeners will be invoked when appropriate and awaitHealthy() will still work as expected.

    Here is a simple example of how to use a ServiceManager to start a server.

     class Server {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
         Set<Service> services = ...;
         ServiceManager manager = new ServiceManager(services);
         manager.addListener(new Listener() {
             public void stopped() {}
             public void healthy() {
               // Services have been initialized and are healthy, start accepting requests...
             public void failure(Service service) {
               // Something failed, at this point we could log it, notify a load balancer, or take
               // some other action.  For now we will just exit.
         Runtime.getRuntime().addShutdownHook(new Thread() {
           public void run() {
             // Give the services 5 seconds to stop to ensure that we are responsive to shutdown
             // requests.
             try {
               manager.stopAsync().awaitStopped(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
             } catch (TimeoutException timeout) {
               // stopping timed out
         manager.startAsync();  // start all the services asynchronously

    This class uses the ServiceManager's methods to start all of its services, to respond to service failure and to ensure that when the JVM is shutting down all the services are stopped.

    Luke Sandberg
    • Constructor Detail

      • ServiceManager

        public ServiceManager​(Iterable<? extends Service> services)
        Constructs a new instance for managing the given services.
        services - The services to manage
        IllegalArgumentException - if not all services are new or if there are any duplicate services.
    • Method Detail

      • addListener

        public void addListener​(ServiceManager.Listener listener,
                                Executor executor)
        Registers a ServiceManager.Listener to be executed on the given executor. The listener will not have previous state changes replayed, so it is suggested that listeners are added before any of the managed services are started.

        addListener guarantees execution ordering across calls to a given listener but not across calls to multiple listeners. Specifically, a given listener will have its callbacks invoked in the same order as the underlying service enters those states. Additionally, at most one of the listener's callbacks will execute at once. However, multiple listeners' callbacks may execute concurrently, and listeners may execute in an order different from the one in which they were registered.

        RuntimeExceptions thrown by a listener will be caught and logged. Any exception thrown during Executor.execute (e.g., a RejectedExecutionException) will be caught and logged.

        When selecting an executor, note that directExecutor is dangerous in some cases. See the discussion in the ListenableFuture.addListener documentation.

        listener - the listener to run when the manager changes state
        executor - the executor in which the listeners callback methods will be run.
      • awaitHealthy

        public void awaitHealthy​(long timeout,
                                 TimeUnit unit)
                          throws TimeoutException
        Waits for the ServiceManager to become healthy for no more than the given time. The manager will become healthy after all the component services have reached the running state.
        timeout - the maximum time to wait
        unit - the time unit of the timeout argument
        TimeoutException - if not all of the services have finished starting within the deadline
        IllegalStateException - if the service manager reaches a state from which it cannot become healthy.
      • awaitStopped

        public void awaitStopped()
        Waits for the all the services to reach a terminal state. After this method returns all services will either be terminated or failed.
      • awaitStopped

        public void awaitStopped​(long timeout,
                                 TimeUnit unit)
                          throws TimeoutException
        Waits for the all the services to reach a terminal state for no more than the given time. After this method returns all services will either be terminated or failed.
        timeout - the maximum time to wait
        unit - the time unit of the timeout argument
        TimeoutException - if not all of the services have stopped within the deadline
      • isHealthy

        public boolean isHealthy()
        Returns true if all services are currently in the running state.

        Users who want more detailed information should use the servicesByState() method to get detailed information about which services are not running.

      • servicesByState

        public ImmutableSetMultimap<Service.State,​ServiceservicesByState()
        Provides a snapshot of the current state of all the services under management.

        N.B. This snapshot is guaranteed to be consistent, i.e. the set of states returned will correspond to a point in time view of the services.

        29.0 (present with return type ImmutableMultimap since 14.0)
      • startupTimes

        public ImmutableMap<Service,​LongstartupTimes()
        Returns the service load times. This value will only return startup times for services that have finished starting.
        Map of services and their corresponding startup time in millis, the map entries will be ordered by startup time.
      • toString

        public String toString()
        Description copied from class: java.lang.Object
        Returns a string representation of the object. In general, the toString method returns a string that "textually represents" this object. The result should be a concise but informative representation that is easy for a person to read. It is recommended that all subclasses override this method.

        The toString method for class Object returns a string consisting of the name of the class of which the object is an instance, the at-sign character `@', and the unsigned hexadecimal representation of the hash code of the object. In other words, this method returns a string equal to the value of:

         getClass().getName() + '@' + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())
        toString in class Object
        a string representation of the object.